viernes, 10 de junio de 2011

Luis Meléndez V. Herpesvirus saimiri.

El herpesvirus saimiri fue descubierto por el virólogo chileno Luis Meléndez V

Herpesvirus saimiri (saimiriine herpesvirus 2) is the classical prototype of the gamma(2)-herpesviruses or rhadinoviruses, which also contains a human member, the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. The T-lymphotropic Herpesvirus saimiri establishes specific replicative and persistent conditions in different primate host species. Virtually all squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) are persistently infected with this virus. In its natural host, the virus does not cause disease, whereas it induces fatal acute T-cell lymphoma in other monkey species after experimental infection. The virus can be isolated by cocultivation of permissive epithelial cells with peripheral blood cells from naturally infected squirrel monkeys and from susceptible New World monkeys during the virus-induced disease. Tumour-derived and in vitro-transformed T-cell lines from New World monkeys release virus particles. Herpesvirus ateles is a closely related virus of spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) and has similar pathogenic properties to Herpesvirus saimiri in other New World primate species. Similar to other rhadinoviruses, the genome of Herpesvirus saimiri harbours a series of virus genes with pronounced homology to cellular counterparts including a D-type cyclin, a G-protein-coupled receptor, an interleukin-17, a superantigen homologue, and several inhibitors of the complement cascade and of different apoptosis pathways. Preserved function has been demonstrated for most of the homologues of cellular proteins. These viral functions are mostly dispensable for the transforming and pathogenic capability of the virus. However, they are considered relevant for the apathogenic persistence of Herpesvirus saimiri in its natural host. A terminal region of the non-repetitive coding part of the virus genome is essential for pathogenicity and T-cell transformation. Based on the pathogenic phenotypes and the different alleles of this variable region, the virus strains have been assigned to three subgroups, termed A, B and C. In the highly oncogenic subgroup C strains, the two virus genes stpC and tip are transcribed from one bicistronic mRNA and are essential for transformation and leukaemia induction. stpC fulfils the typical criteria of an oncogene; its product interacts with Ras and tumour necrosis factor-associated factors and induces mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor kappa B activation. Tip interacts with the RNA transport factor Tap, with signal transduction and activation of transcription factors, and with the T-cellular tyrosine kinase Lck, which is activated by this interaction and phosphorylates Tip as a substrate. It is of particular interest that certain subgroup C virus strains such as C488 are capable of transforming human T lymphocytes to stable growth in culture. The transformed human T cells harbour multiple copies of the viral genome in the form of stable, non-integrated episomes. The cells express only a few virus genes and do not produce virus particles. The transformed cells maintain the antigen specificity and many other essential functions of their parental T-cell clones. Based on the preserved functional phenotype of the transformed T cells, Herpesvirus saimiri provides useful tools for T-cell immunology, for gene transfer and possibly also for experimental adoptive immunotherapy.

Melendez LV, Daniel MD, Hunt RD, Garcia FG. An apparently new herpesvirus from primary kidney cultures of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Lab Anim Care. 1968 Jun;18(3):374–381. [PubMed]

Meléndez LV, Hunt RD, Daniel MD, García FG, Fraser CE. Herpesvirus saimiri. II. Experimentally induced malignant lymphoma in primates. Lab Anim Care. 1969 Jun;19(3):378–386. [PubMed]

Melendez LV, Hunt RD, King NW, Barahona HH, Daniel MD, Fraser CE, Garcia FG. Herpesvirus ateles, a new lymphoma virus of monkeys. Nat New Biol. 1972 Feb 9;235(58):182–184. [PubMed]

2 comentarios:

  1. Virus de humanos y primates:

    Hepatitis : A - B hepatitis can be transmitted from human to primates , and from primates to humans , human vaccination against hepatitis B should be considered for people at risk , importers , trader ,zoo keepers , breeders ....
    Myxovirus (common cold ) it may lead to severe respiratory healthiness , c vitamins and antibiotic therapy may be useful .
    Herpes viruses ...this are the most dangerous infection you can get in your collection . Some of this viruses are usually self - limited to one host , but some or mostly of the time they can be fatal for other species, generally the host is carrying the virus with any health problem , or only small lesion and mostly of the time not fatal for the host .
    Herpes hominis : host humans , it can develop serious diseases in neo-tropical monkeys and apes , encephalitis and conjunctivitis by marmosets and tamarins it can be fatal .
    Herpes saimiri : host saimiris , it is fatal for marmosets , tamarins , owl monkeys , titis ,... more than 70% squirrel monkeys carry this virus , and do not have any clinical sign ....!!! it is transmitted by contact , oral , faeces ....
    Herpes tamarinus : host saimiris in a subclinical way , it is fatal for marmosets , tamarins, owl monkeys , titis,... it is transmitted by contact , oral , faeces ....
    Herpes simia : host macaques , this may be fatal for apes and humans , it is transmitted by bites, scratches and "splashing" of bodily fluids into the eyes , clinical signs are generally ulcers , this healthiness is rarely serious and dangerous for non-humans primates .
    Herpes ateles : host ateles , fatal for marmosets , tamarins , owl monkeys , titits,...
    Other herpes viruses are present in monkeys, apes ......... gorila herpes , chimp herpes , owl monkey herpes , ..

  2. Id: 10294
    Autor: Schudel, A; Falk, L. A; Deinhart, F.
    Título: Heterogeneidad linfocitaria del sistema T: caracterizacion de un antisuero alotipico que reconoce un determinante antigenico de sub-especie en primates no-humanos. / T-lymphocyte heterogenicity: characterization of an allotypic antiserum which recognizes an antigenic determinant of non -human primate supspecies
    Fonte: Rev. argent. microbiol;14(1):17-30, 1982.
    Idioma: Es.
    Resumo: A fin de determinar las propiedades de membrana en las poblaciones de linfocitos T de primates del genero Saguinous o lineos celulares linfoblasticas del mismo origen, se preparo un suero alotipico inoculando dos Saguinous illigeri con 3,5 x 10(10) celulas viables 70N2, obtenidas in-vitro de un linfoma inducido por la inoculacion de virus Herpes Saimiri en un Sanguinous oedipus. La linea 70N2 lleva el genoma del virus en forma episomal, no es productora de virus y forma rosetas espontaneas (99%) con eritrocitos ovinos. El suero alotipico obtenido inhibe la formacion de rosetas espontaneas y reacciona linfoblasticos T y linfocitos perifericos de S. oedipus, pero no de Sanguinous illigeri o nigrifrons, C. jacchus, Papio sp, Samiri primates humanos. Estos resultados indican que en las poblaciones linfocitarias de tipo T de Sanguinous existen por lo menos dos poblaciones antigenicas, una comun a todos los miembros de la especie y otra especifica de sub-especie, relacionada a los receptores de rosetas espontaneas y presente en cultivos celulares linfoblasticos con caracteristicas T de la misma especie